Wednesday, June 14, 2017

10 Portraits of 18th-Century Women With Knotting Shuttles

image: an 18th-century French knotting shuttle with case [credit: AnticStore]

"[Knotting] is so little used that a description seems almost unnecessary." --Florence Hartley, The ladies' hand book of fancy and ornamental work, 1859

By the time that Florence Hartley wrote these words, the practice of knotting--or creating a string of ornamental knots using a shuttle--had fallen so far out of use that it was only worth three sentences in a book otherwise stuffed with descriptions, patterns, and step by step diagrams of all sorts of ornamental needlework. Yet knotting was once a staple of ornamental needlework practiced by upper class women, who would spend hours creating delicate knots with their beautifully adorned shuttles.

Knotting was done through the use of a knotting shuttle, which allowed the user to wind thread which could be gradually turned into long strings of decorative knots. Most women would keep drawstring bags on their wrists so that the strings could be pushed inside as they knotted. After they were finished, the knotted strings were then couched or sewn onto dresses, linen, chair backings, and other types of fabric material. Knotting shuttles for upper class women were typically made from high end materials, including porcelain, ivory, tortoiseshell, or even gold, while shuttles for lower classes were more often made of bone. 

The easy nature of knotting made it something women, once well-practiced, could keep themselves occupied with while barely needing to look at their hands. Knotting could be done during long coach rides, while sitting in drawing rooms and salons, while sitting in the theater, and any number of occasions. The practice was so popular with Queen Mary of England during her downtime that that Sir Charles Sedley made a ditty of it: ‘For here’s a Queen now thanks to God!/Who when she rides in coach abroad/Is always knotting threads.’ 

The widespread popularity of knotting in the 17th and 18th century made it a popular subject in women's portraiture of the period. I've compiled ten of the many portraits from this period showcasing women using knotting shuttles, which I've shared below. (You can find many more portraits online--a great number of hem are mislabeled as women with tatting shuttles; however, tatting did not develop until the 19th century and the shuttles featured in these 18th century portraits are all designed for knotting.)

 A portrait of Mme Georges Gougenot de Croissy by Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1757

 A portrait of Marie Antoinette of Austria by Jean-Etienne Liotard, 1762

 A portrait of Princess Charlotte of Hesse-Philippsthal or Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony from the workshop of Georg Desmarées, circa 1764.

 A portrait of Maria Kunigunde of Saxony by Pietro Rotari, circa 1755

 A portrait of Madame Adelaide de France by Jean-Marc Nattier, 1756.

 A portrait of Madame Dange by Louis Tocque, 1753.

 A portrait of François de Jullienne and his wife Marie Elisabeth by Charles Antoine Coypel, 1743.

 A portrait of Mrs. Abney by Joseph Wright, circa 1780s-90s.

 A portrait of Queen Charlotte and Charlotte, Princess Royal by Benjamin West, 1776.

 A portrait of Elizabeth de la Vallee de la Roche by Michel Pierre Hubert Descourts, 1771.

Friday, May 26, 2017

10 Portraits of 18th-Century Women Doing Needlework

"I'm embroidering a waistcoat for the King which hasn’t progressed much, but I hope that with God’s grace, it will be finished in a few years." --Marie Antoinette, 1770.

Needlework of all kinds was a common pastime for aristocratic and wealthy women in the 18th century; needle-crafts such as hand-embroidery, sewing, couching and even lacework were ways for upper-class women to occupy their hours of leisure time and create elaborate embellished gifts for close friends and family, or even embellished decor for their own personal use.

Needlework was ever-present in the lives of lower class women as well, although spending hours honing skills in elaborate decorative needlework was usually reserved for women who used that skill to bring in money instead as a leisure activity enjoyed by wealthy women. Needle skills were necessary for the everyday tasks of running a household, such as sewing, mending, and marking linens; as with upper class women, embroidery could be used to embellish gifts or personal items.

Not surprisingly, needlework is frequently seen in portraits of women from the 18th century. I've compiled 10 portraits centered on this theme which I will share below.

Portrait of Madame de Pompadour at her Tambour Frame by François-Hubert Drouais, 1763-1764.

 Portrait of Caroline Fox, 1st Baroness Holland by Joshua Reynolds, 1757-1758.

 Portrait of Marquise de Caumont La Force by François-Hubert Drouais, 1767.

 Portrait of archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria by Jean-Etienne Liotard, 1762.

Portrait of Catherine Brass Yates by Gilbert Stuart, 1793. 

 Portrait of a young girl embroidering by Jean-Etienne Liotard, 18th century.

 Portrait of a woman doing needlework by Charles-Antoine Coypel, 18th century.

 Portrait of The Ladies Waldegrave by Joshua Reynolds, 1780.

Portrait of a young woman doing embroidery attributed to Jean-François Garneray, 18th century.

Portrait of Catherine Lane Barker by Gilbert Stuart, 1792.

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

Book Review: Mindful Beauty by Estelle Lefébure

 [A review copy was sent to me by the publisher.]
In Mindful Beauty: How to Look Great and Feel Great in Every Season, former supermodel Estelle Lefébure offers a series of recipes, tips, thoughts and ideas for keeping yourself healthy and happy during every season of the year.

The book is organized by season (spring, summer, Indian summer, autumn and winter) and each season features various recipes, tips, lists, guides and more tailored for the weather, season and health issues that may pop up during that time. For instance, the book includes a body scrub recipe for springtime, a recipe for a protective mask designed to help nourish your skin during the hot summer months, a yummy baked apple recipe for the fall and a descriptive guide to an exercise tailored for the colder winter months. Sprinkled throughout the book are inspirational quotes, along with helpful hints and tips regarding what fruits and vegetables are in season at the market, exercise tips for different seasons, facial masks and beauty treatments for the changing weather, and helpful hints regarding topics such as nutrition, meditation, relaxation, and various other types of life advice.

Mindful Beauty: How to Look Great and Feel Great in Every Season reminds me of a naturalistic self-care magazine issue, without the unnecessary filler and advertisements. I will definitely be incorporating some of Estelle's tips and recipes in the upcoming year! I recommend this book if you are looking for a short but worthwhile wellness book to browse through when you're looking for small ways to improve your seasonal routines.

Book Review: Les Françaises by Sonia Sieff

credit: © Les Francaises by Sonia Sieff, Rizzoli new York, 2017.

 [A review copy was sent to me by the publisher.]
Sonia Sieff is a French photographer whose premiere book, Les Françaises, is a provocative debut of more than 200 color female nudes. I will admit that I knew next to nothing about Sonia Sieff before receiving this book for review and I didn't quite realize the book was solely dedicated to the nude photographs until I received it. I'll also admit that I was fully prepared for something altogether different when I opened up the first pages--something aggressive and posed and perhaps even unpleasant, similar to what a person might find in an erotic magazine.

What I discovered was the complete opposite of the male-oriented gaze that I had anticipated: the images featured in this volume are taken from Sonia's female perspective and her ability to highlight the nude body--the 'natural state'--without sexualizing it was very intriguing.

The photographs are soft, intimate, and what sensuality does exist is not forced. There are no overt "seductive" or "sexual" poses, but rather images that capture a moment in time, a personality, a hobby, a favorite place, a secret. A woman standing in the window of a centuries-old home, smiling through the green foliage that has grown up around it; a woman, hand on her forehead, lost in thought while seated in a dusty old movie theater; a woman sitting on a plush chair while thoughtfully perusing a carefully curated bookshelf behind her; a woman sitting on a log at the beach, watching a wave come to shore as the wind blows her hair. As Sonia herself describes, "Au naturel, they reveal their world, their secrets. These are portraits of women whom I admire. They could all be sisters or friends."

I would recommend Les Françaises if you are interested in avant-garde French photography or a intimate look at the female nude through a talented female photographer's lens.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Review: Dora Maar: Paris in the Time of Man Ray, Jean Cocteau, and Picasso by Louise Baring

Dora Maar: Paris in the Time of Man Ray, Jean Cocteau, and Picasso by Louise Baring is a fresh look at the life  and photography of Dora Maar, a photographer, intellectual and artist whose personal life and legacy is often overshadowed by her years-long love affair with Pablo Picasso.

Despite being a prominent figure in her own right, Maar's imprint on contemporary photography and her involvement in the intellectual and Surrealist movement of the 1930s and 40s has been all but forgotten; Maar has, for the most part, become a backdrop in the story of Pablo Picasso, a shadow of a woman behind a famous painter. She is Picasso's muse, Picasso's lover, but never Dora Maar the photographer, Dora Maar the intellectual, whose path and career was forever altered when she began a relationship with Picasso.

Baring's book begins by exploring the 1998 art auctions which occurred after Maar's death at the age of 89. The auctions, which saw much of Dora Maar's personal collection sold to the highest bidder, revealed a vast trove of Picasso mementos that Maar had clung to in an obsessive fashion that Baring likens to Miss Havisham in Great Expectations. But the 'Maar' auctions also revealed a wider collection of her photography work that had been kept from public view--and out of the public mind--for decades. It is this photography work that makes up the heart of the book, which reclaims an important part of Maar's legacy.

Her photography career began in earnest in the 1930s, when she began working with Harry Meerson, a photographer for Paris Magazine. Maar's work gained the notice of various magazines and advertisers, who began commissioning her for work. These early fashion and advertising photos are an intriguing look at Maar's ability to blend unusual avant-garde art styles with commercial photography meant for public consumption. My favorite is one of Maar's study photographs for a Petrole Hahn hair lotion advertising campaign, which consists solely of a close up of soft, carefully lit waves of hair with a tiny ship, complete with sails, resting gently on top.

Maar's commercial projects allowed her time to develop her personal photography, which was  featured in articles, journals, or exhibitions. Maar began to travel, and her photographs from these international adventures are some of the most intriguing in the book. In a photograph taken in London in 1934, a young boy gazes directly at Maar while holding a docile looking cat in a cloth; his gaze makes him appear as if he's almost challenging Maar, and the end result--like many of Maar's traveling photographs from this era--is an image that, forgive the cliche, makes you think. Who was the boy? Why was he holding the cat? Did he want to be photographed?

Most of Maar's personal Surrealist photography was taken between 1934 and 1936, when she began working at her own studio--an apartment that her father rented, which allowed her to avoid having to work for a commercial studio company. These Surrealist works combine various montage techniques, with the end result being photomontages that are unusual, often striking, and sometimes (such as in the case of 'Le Simulateur/The Faker') even haunting.

credit: © Dora Maar by Louise Baring, Rizzoli New York, 2017; Photography © Dora Maar.

Maar was not simply a spectator. She was a mainstay in the artistic movement in her own right and her involvement led to associations with famous contemporaries such as Man Ray, Georges Bataille, and of course, Picasso. It may have been her relationship with Picasso which led to her giving up photography in favor of painting, despite her personal and commercial success. Michèle Chomette, who catalogued the photographs for the famous 1998 auction, believes that after her work on his 'Guernica,' Picasso  "wanted her to photograph only his work." Picasso himself was quoted as saying that "Inside Dora Maar the photographer was a painter trying to get out."

Their relationship began deteriorating significantly during WWII, and was further complicated by  Picasso's exhausting behavior; he delighted in pitting Maar and his wife against each other to remind each woman that they were each not the sole object of his affection, he often swung between kindness and compassion and cold rejection, and in 1943 he began a relationship with a much younger woman who began to supplant Maar's place as his muse. Maar's somber emotional state is gloomily reflected in a self-portrait she took in a mirror during the early 1940s, where she gazs sadly, almost without energy, into the mirror. A poem found after her death, undated, reveals despair: "In a mirror facing me I ask/For the night to come/Let the time pass/Let me withdraw/Let the mirror be empty/for always."

In May of 1945, the situation had finally deteriorated to a breaking point. Maar arrived late to a lunch with Picasso and declared "I've had enough, I can't stay. I'm going." Maar's erratic emotional state in the days that followed led to shock treatments, and Picasso decided to end their affair.

In the years that followed, Maar was able to find renewed energy. "Everyone expected me to commit suicide after he left me," she once said. "Even Picasso expected it, and the main reason I didn't kill myself was not to give him the pleasure." Maar began practicing Roman Catholicism, continued painting, and actively participated in the Parisian social circle for a few years. She dabbled in photographer occasionally over the years--even creating some new images in the early 1980s using her old negatives from the 30s--but mostly avoided talking about her past as a photographer. Towards the end of her life, she became reclusive, rarely venturing out and most often only leaving her home for mass and religious services. She died in July of 1997 after collapsing on the street.

Louise Baring does an excellent job of bringing the mysterious Dora Maar into the light in this new publication. No longer is she Dora Maar, Picasso's mistress, but a human being--an artist, a photographer, and an intellectual--in her own right. Baring carefully uses quotes from contemporaries and historians to help provide an intimate and rounded view of her life, as well as quotes from Maar herself, and even several snippets of her poetry. The book is filled with photographs and images, mostly by Maar, which are reproduced in high quality. Many of the images have never been published before and are a true delight to see in print.

I heartily recommend Dora Maar: Paris in the Time of Man Ray, Jean Cocteau, and Picasso to anyone with an interest in learning more about Maar than her role as Picasso's muse; the long overdue look at the engaging, surreal and memorable photography of Dora Maar is particularly worthwhile to students of photography and art as a whole.

[A review copy was provided by the publisher.]

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Gilded Sculpture in the Queen's Theater

A view of the sculpture work in the theater of Marie Antoinette at the Petit Trianon.

[credit: © EPV / Thomas Garnier, via Chateau de Versailles]

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Hyacinths at the Trianon

Two views of the currently blooming hyacinths in the gardens of the Trianon.

[credit: © EPV / Didier Saulnier, via Chateau de Versailles]

[credit: © EPV / Didier Saulnier, via Chateau de Versailles]